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Author Topic: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}  (Read 26842 times)

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Offline Voyager

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It is believed that the city was founded in 212 AD by Alani settlers. Greek merchants from the Byzantine Empire founded Σουγδαία (a reference to Sogdia) in the 3rd century. In the 6th century, the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I ordered the construction of a fortress. The Khazars attacked in the 7th century, giving it the name Suğdaq. The Life of St. Stefan of Surozh (Russian: св. Стефан Сурожского) describes the 8th century town as a dependency of the Byzantine Empire. Around the start of the 9th century, it was supposedly attacked by the Rus' chieftain, Bravlin. It is thought that the Khazars retained the town from the early 800s until 1016, when the Byzantines finally defeated the Khazar warlord Georgeios Tsulo. Afterwards, the town seems to have preserved some sort of autonomy within the Byzantine Empire.

From the 9th century until around the 12th century, there were important trade exchanges between the then Surozh and the Kievan Rus'.

Sudak or Sudaq (Crimean Tatar: Sudaq; Ukrainian and Russian: Судак) is a small historic town located in Crimea, Ukraine situated 57 km (35 mi) to the west of Feodosiya (the nearest railway station) and 104 km (65 mi) to the east of Simferopol, the capital of Crimea. Today it is a popular resort, best known for its Genoese fortress, the best preserved on the northern shore of the Black Sea.

It became an important location for trading on the Silk Road in the 12th and 13th centuries, despite attacks by the Kypchaks in the 11th century and further damages inflicted by the Tatars (in 1223, but also in 1239). The Seljuk Anatolian Sultanate of Iconium army and fleet from Sinop held and fortified Sudak in 1224.

In 1204 Byzantium {Constantinople} was captured during the 4th Crusade, and the Crimean territories of the Byzantine Empire passed to the control of the Venetians. Most of the buildings of the Sudak Fortress date to the Venetian & Genoan control of Sudak. {Venice & Genoa were two Italian cities with competing commercial empires} The Byzantine empire was split into several parts, with the central parts & Constantinople ruled by a new Emperor, who had been one of the Crusader kings.

The Venetians first came to Sudak at the beginning of the 13th century to take their share, they named the fortress Soldaia, before ceding it to Genoese control in 1365. The Ottomans took control of Soldaia and all other Genoese colonies, as well as the Principality of Theodoro in 1475. Although Sudak was the strategical center of the qadılıq, the smallest administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire, the town lost much of its military and commercial importance, until the Crimean Khanate took over.

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine & Crusader era}
« Reply #1 on: July 04, 2009, 11:57:39 AM »
Sudak - the Barbican {main gate}, and the panorama view of the fortress & citadel. The fortress is well preserved, most of the walls & buildings are intact, except for the top citadel, which is in ruins. There is an entry fee for the fortress, it was about $6 when I was there during the festival.

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #2 on: July 20, 2009, 11:16:47 PM »
Every summer in July they hold a Medieval festival in the fortress, with local folk dressed up in costume, craftsmen demonstrating metalworking, tanning {leatherwork} archery, horseback riding and other activities. I am told that it is usually held in July, so it might be of interest for those who will be there at the time.

The first picture is in the large courtyard of the Fortress, past the barbican gatehouse and inside the outer walls, looking up towards the top citadel. This area would be an encampment for the troops, and would hold all of the people & animals inside the wall when attacked


Offline mirror

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #3 on: July 21, 2009, 12:06:30 AM »
Voyager,

thank you for nice illustration and hystorical inquiry.I was in Sudak in my past many years ago when I was a student but it is great to see this place again...even on photos.

I have a vacation from 29th July and looking for places to travel. Mostly we go to Anapa,Gelendgik,Sotchi...but other places are wellcomed also.

Thank you for reminding about Sudak.

Offline anjutka

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #4 on: July 21, 2009, 01:13:12 AM »
Yes, thank you from me as well )))))I have been there with my mother  just after i finished school ;D ....There was some open dance place, and i spended there each evering)))....And meet  there my classmates ))))Russia is sooooo big, and we met ,its so amazing :biggrin:
1 Life is not rehearsal... 2 sorry for my english;-)) 3 Thinking only always positive way=be healthy and happy))))) 4yes, and I am 41 yo ;-))))))))))))) 5 In life there are no rules!!! 6 but he should not be older 45 yo )))) 7...? ;-)

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #5 on: July 21, 2009, 08:31:01 PM »
You are welcome ladies!

I hope some of our men will take an interest in Russia's rich history as well!  ;D

Some more pictures:

A view from the Castle, looking Eastwards over the Sudak beachfront


The second view is of our group, climbing up to the highest Citadel. You can see the inland parts of Sudak in the background.
 

Offline mirror

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #6 on: July 21, 2009, 08:46:11 PM »
Voyager ,

you write about Kyptchaks and Khazars with some negative aspects. Sorry,but you can't keep a silence that despite of wars between Russians and Khazars,Kyptchaks  modern Russians have a blood from these folks.  :)

And what do you think about Khazar's hystorical roots of Jews ?

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #7 on: July 21, 2009, 09:12:59 PM »
Voyager ,

you write about Kyptchaks and Khazars with some negative aspects. Sorry,but you can't keep a silence that despite of wars between Russians and Khazars,Kyptchaks  modern Russians have a blood from these folks.  :)

And what do you think about Khazar's hystorical roots of Jews ?

To be honest Mirror, I don't know everything about the Kyptchaks and Khazars, I've studied more about the Byzantines & Russians. I found some of this material in the descriptions of Sudak on-line. Could you tell us more about the Kyptchaks and Khazars?
I am always interested to learn!  ;D

Offline mirror

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #8 on: July 21, 2009, 10:56:55 PM »
Our teachers (in our primary school) were teaching us about Russian hystory in same negative direction about Polovtchy,Khazars too.After getting older I was surprised to read another opinion (honest opinion) of Karamzin,Klutchevsky about hystory of  people who lived on Russian territory.

Russian lived settled on the territory of Small Russia and Kazars (and then Polovtchy -половцы) were living like nomads. Yes,they  always had a habbit to fight but same time Russians had a habbit to solve problems with marrying Russian girls to Kazars and Polovtchy...so I laugh when Ukr,Russians say something  bad about  those nomands .For me it means that people don't know about a real hystory. The most  modern Ukr,Russians have a part of nomand's blood.  

More...if you will look carefully at Georgians, Tchetchens,Dagestans,Armenians (and other descendants of Khazars) you will find a huge similarity in an appearance of them and Jews,because they are relatives. Of course you can read more about it in books of Klutchevsky.

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #9 on: July 21, 2009, 11:37:38 PM »
Our teachers (in our primary school) were teaching us about Russian hystory in same negative direction about Polovtchy,Khazars too.

No negative attitude was intended,  ;D history is just a record. It's hard from our time to say who was "good" or "bad", just like in Britain where there was a mix of Normans {French}, Saxons {Germanic}, Norsemen {Nordic "Vikings"}, Celts & Picts, all cultures mixed together.

The Black was {as mentioned before} an important trading route throughout history, so that's why Sudak has belonged to so many rulers:

Greek/Roman
Byzantine
Seljuk
Khazar
Venetian
Genoese
Ottoman
Crimean Khanate
Russian Empire

All have played a part in Crimea's history  :reading:

Offline mirror

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #10 on: July 21, 2009, 11:53:07 PM »
Oh! You reminded me about Ottoman Empire.When I was tarveling in Turkey our guide said that I have a real Turkish face and  after knowing that I am Tatar he said that I am definitely Turkish woman,Crimea is ,of couirse, natural Turkish territory and Crimea Tatars are Turks. I answered him that I am not Crimean Tatar and got an answer that all Tatars -from Crimean Tatars. Yes,I could not argue with him because Turkic tribes are ancestors of many folks, living in Russia.

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #11 on: July 28, 2009, 05:19:51 PM »
Yes, thank you from me as well )))))I have been there with my mother  just after i finished school ;D ....There was some open dance place, and i spended there each evering)))....And meet  there my classmates ))))Russia is sooooo big, and we met ,its so amazing :biggrin:

I'm glad you liked the thread! I hope you went to see the castle too, not just dancing.  ;D

Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #12 on: August 11, 2009, 02:20:51 PM »
Oh! You reminded me about Ottoman Empire.When I was tarveling in Turkey our guide said that I have a real Turkish face and  after knowing that I am Tatar he said that I am definitely Turkish woman,Crimea is ,of couirse, natural Turkish territory and Crimea Tatars are Turks.

It was also very interesting to see all of the Turkish/Tatar restaurants in Sudak. I had heard that they don't use chairs but I hadn't seen it before, we ate at several of these restaurants in Sudak. There are many places to get Shashlik from beachfront kiosks, but of course Shashlik is also very similar to Turkish or Greek "Kabob"


Here is a picture of the castle taken from the beachfront:

Offline mendeleyev

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #13 on: August 11, 2009, 04:48:47 PM »
Voyager,

Nice info and photos!

Offline Samoylik

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #14 on: October 04, 2009, 03:57:14 AM »
I saw this amazing place! We have spent good time there!


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Offline Voyager

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Re: Sudak Castle, Crimea - History Board {Byzantine/Crusader era}
« Reply #15 on: October 07, 2009, 11:35:25 AM »
I saw this amazing place! We have spent good time there!


Glad you liked it!.  8)

It's one of my favorite places in Crimea.  :travel:


 

 

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